Repository of Research and Investigative Information

Repository of Research and Investigative Information

Dezful University of Medical Sciences

Type 2 diabetes: An updated overview

(2019) Type 2 diabetes: An updated overview. Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis. pp. 213-222. ISSN 08939675 (ISSN)

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The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide. This study provides essential information about the classification, diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment, and complications of T2D. Glucose ho-meostasis is controlled by the rates of endogenous glucose production (EGP) and glucose utilization. EGP is ~2 mg/kg/min in humans and is equal to the rate of basal glucose utilization. During fasting, ~75–85 of EGP occurs in the liver and the remainder in the kidney. Hepatic glucose production is the main determinant of fasting blood glucose concentration. In the fed state, when insulin secretion is stimulated and glucagon secretion is inhibited, EGP decreases and glucose uptake in splanchnic (liver and gut) and peripheral (primarily muscle) tissues increases. β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance represent core pathophysiological defects in T2D. Although the pathogenesis of T2D was previously focused on dysfunctions of “ominous triumvirate” (liver, skeletal muscle, and β-cell), it has been extended to “ominous octet,” which includes defects in adipocytes (increased lipolysis), gastrointestinal tract (incretin deficiency/resistance), pancreatic α-cells (hyperglucagonemia), kidneys (increased glucose reabsorption), and brain (insulin resistance); endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, increased oxidative stress, and hypoxia are also involved in the pathogenesis of T2D. In conclusion, diabetes is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. More insights into the pathophysiology of T2D necessitate revising the treatment approaches from only glycemic control to a pathophysiological-based view. Inaddition, new emerging complications of T2D such as cancer warrant further attention. © 2019 Begell House, Inc.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Antidiabetic drugs Diabetes complications Glucose homeostasis Insulin resistance Pathophysiol-ogy Type 2 diabetes antidiabetic agent glucose insulin adipose tissue Article diabetic complication diabetogenesis disease classification endothelium human hypothalamus lipolysis liver metabolism non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus nonhuman pancreas islet beta cell priority journal risk factor skeletal muscle
Subjects: QT Physiology > QT104-172 Human Physiology
QU Biochemistry. Cell Biology and Genetics > QU 135-144 Enzymes
WB Practice of Medicine > WB 300-962Therapeutics
WD Disorders of Systemic, Metabolic or Environmental Origin, etc. > WD 200-226 Metabolic Diseases
Divisions: Education Vice-Chancellor Department > Faculty of Medicine > Department of Basic Science > Department of Parasitology and Mycology
Page Range: pp. 213-222
Journal or Publication Title: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Journal Index: Scopus
Volume: 24
Number: 3
Identification Number:
ISSN: 08939675 (ISSN)
Depositing User: مهندس مهدی شریفی

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